Epiphyllum species




EPIPHYLLUM Haworth. 1812.
(Phyllocactus, Marniera)
About 12 species of scandent-pendent cacti distributed throughout most of Latin America. Stems flat, at least apically.
Flowers usually nocturnal, rarely diurnal (staying open all day, as in E. crenatum and E. laui), funnelform, white to yellowish.

  • E. anguliger (Lem.) Don. 1851. (E. darahii, E. "beahmianum" [invalid name], E. "gertrudeanum" [invalid name]).
    Mexico. Stems ca. 7 cm wide, margins with long, acute to obtuse lobes. Flowers (14-)17-20 cm long, outer petals
    opening 11-13 cm wide, the inner opening 6 cm wide. The stems closely resemble those of Selenicereus anthonyanus
    and Weberocereus imitans.
  • E. cartagense (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stems mostly cylindrical, widening apically to 2-8 cm.
    Flowers 15-21 cm long.
  • E. caudatum Britt. & Rose. 1913. Mexico. Lower stems cylindrical, apical portion flat and 3-4 cm wide. Flowers
    12-15 cm long. Closely related to E. cartagense.
  • E. crenatum (Lindl.) Don. 1844. Stems fleshy, crenate, green to glaucous. Flowers day-blooming, 19-29 cm long.
    *var. crenatum (E. ‘Kinchinjunga'). Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras. Flowers with a few prominent scales
    on base, spines few or lacking, outer petals attached near apex of tube.

    var. crenatum 'Chichicastenango'. Variant from Guatemala with abnormally few and distorted stem-lobes.
    *var. kimnachii Bravo. 1964. (Epiphyllum ×cooperi, ×Seleniphyllum cooperi, Marniera macroptera var. kimnachii).
    Mexico. Base of flower with smaller, more numerous scales and profuse spines or bristles, outer petals attached farther
    down on tube. E. ×cooperi, incorrectly described as a hybrid between E. crenatum and Selenicereus grandiflorus, is
    indistinguishable from wild plants of var. kimnachii.
    *E. floribundum Kimn. 1990. Peru? Stems 3-5 cm wide. Flowers often several from an areole, 9-12 cm long,
    opening 8-10 cm, remaining open a day or more, outer petals reddish orange, inner petals light yellow. Fruit ca. 2 cm
    long and 1.5 cm thick, red. Although supposedly collected wild in Peru, the plant is probably a hybrid of Disocactus
    macranthus and should be called ×Disophyllum'Floribundum'.

  • E. grandilobum (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. (E. gigas). Costa Rica, Panama. A vigorous vine to 300 feet or more,
    stems 15-25 cm wide, crenate. Flowers 32-38 cm long, 26-30 cm wide (one of the largest of cactus flowers).
  • E. laui Kimn. 1990. Mexico. Stems soft, shiny, 5-7 cm wide, crenate, with sparse hair-like spines. Flowers
    day-blooming, ca. 18 cm. long, ca. 8 cm wide, outer petals yellow, inner white.
  • E. lepidocarpum (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama. Stems linear, 3-5.5 cm wide, with
    white hairs to 10 mm long. Flowers 15-22 cm long, 15-19 cm wide, the base with linear scales to 12 mm long and
    hairs to 3 mm long. Requires cool growing-conditions.
  • *E. oxypetalum (DC.) Haw. 1828. (E. oxypetalum var. purpusii). Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras. Stem mostly
    cylindrical, apex widened to 4-9 cm. Flowers 27-34 cm long, ca. 20 cm wide.
  • E. phyllanthus (L.) Haw. 1753. Latin America. Stems linear, of firm texture, often brown-margined. Flowers with
    petals at right angles to tube, tube slender, long or short. A variable, widely dispersed species best divided into the
    following varieties.

    var. phyllanthus (E. phyllanthus var. boliviense, E. phyllanthus var. paraguayense). Panama, Cuba, Antigua, Guyana,
    Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay. Flowers 20-29 cm long, 4-9 cm wide.
    var. columbiense (Web.) Back. 1898. Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador. Flowers 7.5-9(-11) cm long, 4.5-6
    cm wide.
    var. guatemalense (Britt. & Rose) Kimn. 1913. (E. guatemalense). Mexico, Guatemala. Flowers (20-)24-26.5 cm
    long, 20-23 cm wide.
    *var. hookeri (Haw.) Kimn. 1829. (E. hookeri, E. stenopetalum, E. strictum). Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras,
    Costa Rica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana, Venezuela. Flowers (17-)19-23 cm long, 10-15 cm wide.

    var. pittieri (Web.) Kimn. 1898. (E. pittieri). Costa Rica, Panama. Flowers 9.5-14.5(-16) cm long, 7-9(-10) cm
    var. rubrocoronatum Kimn. 1964. (E. rubrocoronatum). Panama, Colombia, Ecuador. Flowers 24-29 cm long, 9-11
    cm wide, stamens orange to purple.
    var. schnetteri Peukert. 1991. Colombia. Flowers 27-34 cm long, 3-4 cm wide.

  • E. pumilum Britt. & Rose. 1913. Guatemala, Belize. Flowers 8-12 cm long. Closely related to E. cartagense and E.
  • E. ruestii (Weing.) Back. 1914. Honduras. Little-known species, perhaps an ally or synonym of E. thomasianum.
  • E. thomasianum (Schum.) Britt. & Rose. Stems cylindrical on basal half, flattened apical portion with wide but nearly
    flat lobes. Flowers 28-34 cm long, 20-26 cm wide.
    var. costaricense (Web.) Kimn. 1902. (E. costaricense, E. macrocarpum). Costa Rica, Panama. Stem-base angled,
    hairy, stem-margins brown. Base of flower hairy, petals 9-10 cm long.
    var. thomasianum 1895. (E. macropterum var. thomasianum). Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, ?Ecuador.
    Stem-base cylindrical, hairless, stem-margins green. Base of flowers hair less, petals 12-13.5 cm long.

APOROCACTUS Lemaire. 1860.
Two species of epiphytic or saxicolous vining cacti with cylindrical, many-ribbed, densely spiny stems. In cultivation, plants
are usually grown in hanging containers so the stems are pendent. Flowers tubular, spiny, expanded apically, more or less
unsymmetrical (zygomorphic), petals red or purplish. Popular name: "rat-tail cacti". The genus is close to Heliocereus but can
be distinguished by its thinner, more-ribbed stems and more or less zygomorphic flowers.

  • *A. flagelliformis (L.) Lem. 1753. (A. flagriformis, A. leptophis). Mexico. Stems thin, flower tube strongly upcurving
    near base, petals purplish to purplish red.
  • *A. martianus (Zucc.) Britt. & Rose. 1832. (A. conzattii). Mexico. Stems thicker, flower tube less upcurving near
    base, petals red.

DISOCACTUS Lindley. 1845.
(Wittia, Wittiocactus, Chiapasia, Pseudorhipsalis, Bonifazia)
Twelve species of flat-stemmed spineless epiphytes native to many Latin American countries. Flowers small, tubular to
expanded, red to yellowish or white. Three groups can be recognized: section Disocactus with red, tubular to expanded
flowers, and section Wittiocactus, with straight, short, tubular, unexpanded flowers, the flowers of both sections being
pollinated by hummingbirds; and section Pseudorhipsalis, with whitish, expanded, bee-pollinated flowers.

  • D. acuminatus (Cuf.) Kimn. 1933. (Pseudorhipsalis acuminata). Costa Rica. Stems 3-4 cm wide; fls. expanded,
    10-15 mm long, yellowish white. A rare and difficult-to-grow species.
  • D. alatus (Swartz) Kimn. 1788. (Pseudorhipsalis alata). Jamaica. Fls. expanded, 14-17 mm long, yellowish.
  • D. amazonicus (Schum.) Hunt. 1903. (Wittia amazonica, W. panamensis, Wittiocactus amazonicus). Costa Rica,
    Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. Fls. tubular, 3-4 cm long, tube red, apex blue. The only cactus with
    blue in its flowers. If given generic status, its proper name is Wittiocactus amazonicus.
  • *D. biformis (Lindl.) Lindl. 1843. Guatemala. Stems mostly cylindrical, with flattened apex. Flowers pinkish-red,
    4.5-6 cm long, outer petals expanded, inner petals tubular.
  • *D. eichlamii (Weing.) Britt. & Rose. 1911. Guatemala. Stems cylindrical, with flattened apex. Fls. tubular, 6-8 cm
    long, purplish-red, petals not expanding.
  • D. himantocladus (Rol.-Goss.) Kimn. 1908. (Pseudorhipsalis himantoclada). Costa Rica. Fls. expanded, ca. 2 cm
    long, orange-white.
  • D. horichii Kimn. 1979. Costa Rica. Fls. expanded, 10-12 mm long, greenish white. Closely related to D. acuminatus
    but with narrower, erect stems.
  • D. lankesteri Kimn. 1979. Costa Rica. Fls. expanded, 19-24 mm long, white. Difficult to grow and flower.
  • *D. macranthus (Alex.) Kimn. & Hutchis. 1942. (Pseudorhipsalis macrantha). Mexico. Stems green or glaucous. Fls.
    expanded, 5-8 cm long, 5-9 cm wide, yellowish white, fragrant. Much-used in hybridzing.
    *'Glaucocladus' ("D. macranthus var. glaucocladus", invalid name). 1989. Stems bluish glaucous.
  • D. nelsonii (Britt. & Rose) Lindl. 1913. (Chiapasia nelsonii). Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras. Fls. expanded, 9-11 cm
    long, 5-7 cm wide, purplish pink. Much-used in hybridizing.
    *var. nelsonii. Mexico, Guatemala. Stems cylindrical, with flattened apex; anthers and stigma yellow.
    *var. hondurensis Kimn. 1965. Honduras. Stems mostly flattened; anthers and stigma purple.
  • *D. quezaltecus (Standl. & Steyerm.) Kimn. 1944. (Bonifazia quezalteca). Guatemala. Fls. tubular, 8-9 cm long,
    purplish pink, petals not expanding.
  • D. ramulosus (S.-D.) Kimn. 1834. (Pseudorhipsalis ramulosa, Rhipsalis ramulosa, R. coriacea, R. leiophloea, R.
    purpusii). Jamaica, Haiti, Mexico, south to Peru. Fls. expanded, 7-12 mm long, whitish.
    var. ramulosus. Stems thinner, pinkish when young, 2-4 cm. wide.
    var. ramulosus forma angustissimus (Web.) Kimn. 1902. (Rhipsalis angustissima). Costa Rica. Stems 5-8 mm wide.
    var. jamaicensis (Britt. & Harris) Kimn. 1909. (Rhipsalis jamaicensis). Jamaica. Stems thicker, never pinkish.

HELIOCEREUS (Berger) Britt. & Rose. 1909.
Four saxicolous or epiphytic, extremely variable species from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Stems flat to 3-4-angled, often spiny or hairy. Flowers funnelform, tube spiny or hairy, petals red, orange or purplish, rarely
white. A large percentage of orchid cacti have Heliocereus speciosus in their ancestry. The genus is hardly seperable from

  • H. aurantiacus Kimn. 1974. Stems narrow, 3-angled, rarely flat, with thin spines. Flowers orange-red, tube with a few
    thin hairs.
    var. aurantiacus. Honduras, Nicaragua. Stems thin. Flowers 12.5-15.5 cm long, 11 cm wide, base with a few weak

    *var. blomianus Kimn. 1990. ("H. elegantissimus" of nurseries). Mexico. Stems thicker. Flower larger, reddish
    orange, anthers and upper part of style and stamens purplish.

  • *H. cinnabarinus (Eichl.) Britt. & Rose. 1910. (H. heterodoxus). Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador. Stems slender,
    sometimes flat and broad (H. heterodoxus), spines bristle-like. Flowers 12-16 cm long, spines equally long and
    numerous along entire tube, petals not expanding widely, subobtuse, scarlet.
  • H. schrankii (Zucc.) Britt. & Rose. 1834. (H. elegantissimus). Mexico. Stems stouter than in H. cinnabarinus, spiny.
    Flowers 10-16 cm long, spiny only near base, petals expanding more abruptly, acute, red.

    var. schrankii. Inner petals widest near middle, more than 1 cm wide, red.
    var. helenae (Scheinv.) Kimn. 1981. Inner petals widest near middle, flesh-red, often yellowish-tinged.
    var. luzmariae Scheinv.) Kimn. 1985. Inner petals widest near tip, red.
    var. stenopetalus (Bravo) Kimn. 1966. (H. elegantissimus var. stenopetalus). Inner petals less than 1 cm wide.

  • *H. speciosus (Cav.) Britt. & Rose. 1803. (H. speciosus var. superbus, H. speciosus var. serratus). Mexico. Plant
    usually saxicolous. Stems usually upright, with many strong spines. Flowers 15-17 cm long, very spiny, petals obtuse,
    red with purplish tinge. The purplish floral-color in many epiphytic cactus hybrids is inherited from this species.

    *'Amecamensis'. An albino form with white petals.

HYLOCEREUS (Berg.) Britt. & Rose. 1909.
About 15 species widespread in Latin America. Stems clambering, triangular, more or less spiny. Fls. usually large to very
large, rarely small, nocturnal, the base usually spineless and with large overlapping scales, or rarely with small, separated
scales and sometimes spiny (H. trigonus), petals usually white, rarely red (H. extensus, H. stenopterus).

  • H. calcaratus (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stems soft, green, strongly lobed. Fls. 35-37 cm long, 20-30
    cm wide.
  • H. costaricensis (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1909. Costa Rica, Nicaragua. Stems waxy-white. Fls. ca. 30 cm long. Similar
    to H. guatemalensis.
  • H. escuintlensis Kimn. 1984. Guatemala. Stems green, brown-margined. Fls. 28-31 cm long, 24-36 cm wide.
  • H. extensis (S.-D.) Britt. & Rose. 1828. Trinidad. Fls. large, innermost petals rosy white. A questionable species not
    known to be in cultivation.
  • H. guatemalensis (Eichl.) Britt. & Rose. 1911. Guatemala. Stems waxy-white. Fls. ca. 30 cm long. Similar to H.
  • H. lemairei (Hook.) Britt. & Rose. 1854. Trinidad, Tobago, Surinam. Stems gray-green. Fls. 27 cm long, petals
    white, tinged pinkish near base.
  • H. minutiflorus Britt. & Rose. 1913. (Wilmattea minutiflora). Guatemala, Honduras. Stems green. Flowers with rigid
    spines at base of flower, 5 cm long, 8-9 cm wide, white. Often placed in its own genus, Wilmattea, due to its small,
    spiny flowers.
  • H. monacanthus (Lem.) Britt. & Rose. 1845. Colombia, Panama. Stem with 1-2 minute spines. Fls. 28 cm long, 17
    cm wide.
  • H. ocamponis (S.-D.) Britt. & Rose. 1850. Mexico. Stems white-waxy, spines needle-like, 5-12 mm long. Fls. 25-32
    cm long. Separated from H. purpusii only by its longer, thinner spines.
  • H. polyrhizus (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1897. (?H. estebanensis). Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador. Fls. 25-30
    cm long.
  • *H. purpusii (Weing.) Britt. & Rose. 1909. Mexico. Stems white-waxy, spines short and thick. Fls. 25-28 cm long,
    20-25 cm wide. Closely allied to H. ocamponis.
  • H. scandens (S.-D.) Back. 1850. Guyana. Stems bluish green. Fls. unknown. A little- known, questionable species.
  • H. stenopterus (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stems thin, soft, green. Fls. 9-10 cm long, 13-15 cm wide,
    tube nearly lacking, petals purplish red. The small dark-red flowers are
    untypical of the genus.
  • H. triangularis (L.) Britt. & Rose. 1753. (H. cubensis). Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica. Stems green. Fls.
    ca. 20 cm long, base with wide overlapping scales.
  • H. trigonus (Haw.) Saff. 1812. (H. napoleonis, H. antiguensis). West Indies (Puerto Rico south to Grenada). Stems
    green. Fls. ca. 22 cm long, 21 cm wide, base with small, narrow, widely spaced scales, sometimes spiny.
  • *H. undatus (Haw.) Britt. & Rose. 1830. Native habitat uncertain, widely cultivated in the tropics. Stems green,
    margins undulate and brown. Fls. 25-30 cm long.
  • H. venezuelensis Britt. & Rose. 1920. (?Wilmattea venezuelensis). Venezuela, ?Ecuador. Fls. 23-28 cm long.
    Closely allied to H. polyrhizus.


A genus mainly differing from Rhipsalis by the presence of a floral tube over a centimeter long. The single species is terrestrial.

  • L. micrantha (Vaup.) Kimn. 1913. (Rhipsalis asperula, Acanthorhipsalis micrantha, Lepismium micranthum). Peru.
    Stems 2-3-angled, spiny. Flowers 27 mm long, red, inner petals hardly expanding.

NOPALXOCHIA Britt. & Rose. 1923.
(Pseudonopalxochia, Lobeira)

A genus hardly separable from Heliocereus, from which it differs in its flattened stems and less spiny or hairy flowers.

  • N. ackermannii (Haw.) Knuth. 1829. (Epiphyllum ackermannii). Mexico. Fls. large, petals usually red. Not to be
    confused with N. ×hybrida ‘Ackermannii', an old and widely cultivated hybrid.
    *var. ackermannii. Petals 7-10 cm long, red. Prominent in the ancestry of many epiphytic cactus hybrids.
    var. ackermannii 'Candida'. 1947. (Nopalxochia ackermannii forma candida). Native range unknown. Petals 7-10 cm
    long, white.
    *var. conzattiana (MacD.) Kimn. 1947. (N. conzattiana, Pseudonopalxochia conzattiana). Petals 4-6 cm long, red.
  • N. horichii Kimn. 1984. (Disocactus kimnachii). Costa Rica. Stems flat but very thick. Fls. ca. 17 cm long, 13 cm
    wide, rosy pink.
  • N. macdougallii (Alex.) Marsh. (Lobeira macdougallii). Mexico. Stems flat, thick. Fls. 7-8 cm long, 6.5 cm wide,
    purple. Difficult to grow.
  • *N. phyllanthoides (DC.) Britt. & Rose. 1813. Mexico. Fls. 9-10 cm. long, 5 cm wide, campanulate (inner petals
    incurving), rosy pink. Plants of this species are sometimes called "Deutsche Kaiserin", a name correctly associated only
    with ×Heliochia ‘Deutsche Kaiserin', a hybrid of ×Heliochia ‘Hybrida' and N. phyllanthoides.

RHIPSALIS Gaertner. 1788.
(Acanthorhipsalis, Erythrorhipsalis, Hatiora, Lepismium, Pfeiffera, Pseudozygocactus, Rhipsalidopsis)
About 75 species of pendent or creeping epiphytes from Mexico to southern South America, as well as from the tropics of
the Old World. Stems flat to multi-ribbed, with or without spines or hairs. Flowers symmetrical (not zygomorphic), usually
very small and yellowish-white, rarely to 2 cm long and reddish (R. rosea, R. gaertneri), fruits minute.

  • R. baccifera (J. Mill.) Stearn. 1771. Throughout most of Latin America, as well as tropical Africa, Madagascar, Sri
    Lanka. Stems cylindrical, thin. Flowers whitish. Fruits white, rarely reddish. The most widespread of all cacti; migrating
    birds probably carried the seeds to Africa and Asia. It has recently been divided into the following subspecies (a rank
    between species and variety).
    subsp. baccifera (R. minutiflora, R. cassytha, R. cassuthopsis, R. fasciculata, R. heptagona, R. simmleri, R..

    "quellebambensis" [invalid name]). Tropical America. Stems diffuse, fruits white.
    subsp. erythrocarpa (Schum.) Barthl. (R. erythrocarpa). 1895. East Africa. Fruits red at first, later fading.
    subsp. hileiabaiana Taylor & Barthl. 1995. Brazil. Stems densely branched.
    subsp. horrida (Baker) Barthl. 1884. ("R. saxicola" [invalid name]). Madagascar. Stems usually short and densely
    bristly, sometimes with longer hairless stems.

    subsp. mauritiana (De Candolle) Barthl. (R. cassytha mauritiana). 1828. Africa, Madagascar, Sri Lanka. Differs from
    New World subspecies in minute epidermal characters and in its generally larger fruits.
    subsp. shaferi (Britt. & Rose) Barthl. & Taylor. 1923. (R. shaferi). Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina. Differs from subsp.
    baccifera in its shorter, 4-5 mm-thick, stiffer stem-segments.

  • R. boliviana (Britt.) Lauterb. 1893. (Lepismium bolivianum). Bolivia. Stems tape-like, 10-15 mm wide, spineless.
    Base of flowers not sunken in stem, petals yellowish, orange or purplish.
  • R. brevispina (Bartl.) Kimn. 1982. ("Acanthorhipsalis brevispina" [invalid name], Lepismium brevispinum). Peru. Plant
    terrestrial. Stems flat, 2-5-3.5 cm wide, margins with minute spines. Flowers 4-5 mm wide, white to pinkish white.
    Fruits whitish.
  • R. burchellii Britt. & Rose. 1923. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, very thin. Flowers campanulate, white or pinkish. Fruits
  • R. campos-portoana Löfgr. 1918. Brazil. Stems cylindrical. Flowers not opening widely, white, fruit red.
  • R. cereoides (Back. & Voll) Back. 1935. (Lepismium cereoides). Brazil. Plant usually erect, stems 3(-4)-angled,
    jointed, ca. 1.7 cm thick. Flowers white. Fruits light pink.
  • R. cereuscula Haw. 1830. Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay. Stems cylindrical, very long, terminal branches much
    shorter, with sparse bristles. Flowers ca. 15 mm wide, pinkish to white.
  • R. clavata Web. 1892. Brazil. Stems pendent, cylindrical, jointed, thicker near joint-ends. Flowers white, not opening
    widely. Fruit white or yellowish.
    forma clavata. Stems thicker than following form.
    forma delicatula (Löfgr.) Bartl. & Taylor. 1918. Stems more slender and delicate.
  • R. crenata (Britt.) Vaupel. 1891. (Acanthorhipsalis crenata, Lepismium crenatum). Bolivia. Stems flat, 3-6 cm wide,
    20-30 cm long, with small spines. Flowers 14 mm long, floral tube ca. 2 mm long, petals purplish red.
  • R. crispata (Haw.) Pfeiffer. 1830. Surinam, Brazil. Stems flat, jointed, ca. 7 cm wide.
  • R. cruciformis (Vell.) Cast. 1825. (Lepismium cruciforme). Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina. Stems 2-5-angled, ca. 2 cm
    wide, areoles usually conspicuously woolly. Flower-base sunken into stem, petals white to pinkish, fruit reddish or
  • R. cuneata Britt. & Rose. 1923. Bolivia. Stem-segments oblong-spathulate, 8-12 cm long, tapering at base, strongly
  • R. dissimilis (Lindb.) Schum. 1890. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, with 5-9 obscure ribs. Fruit red to colorless.

    forma dissimilis (Lepismium marnierianum, L. saxatilis, R.. spinescens). Stems becoming pendent, flowers pinkish.
    forma epiphyllanthoides (Back.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1935. (R. epiphyllanthoides). Stems erect, joints 2-4 cm. long,
    flowers yellow.

  • R. elliptica Lindb. ex Schum. 1890. (R. chloroptera). Brazil. Stems flat, jointed, 2-7 cm wide.
  • R. epiphylloides Campos Porto & Werderm. 1935-36. Brazil. Stems jointed, flat. Flowers terminal, base winged,
    petals yellowish.
    var. epiphylloides (Hatiora epiphylloides, Pseudozygocactus epiphylloides). Stems ca. 1 cm wide, not broadened at

    var. bradei (Campos-Porto & Cast.) Kimn. 1942. (Hatiora epiphylloides subsp. bradei). Stems 3-5 mm wide, joints
    broader at tip.

  • R. ewaldiana Barthl. & Taylor. 1995. Brazil. Stems dimorphic, 3-4-angled, flowers reddish white, fruit reddish.
  • R. floccosa S.-D. ex Pfeiffer. 1839. Surinam, Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 5-8 mm thick. Flowers 2 cm wide, yellowish
    white, base sunken into stem. Fruit rosy or nearly white.
    subsp. floccosa. (R. floccosa, Lepismium floccosum). Brazil. Stems green, flowers ca. 13 mm wide, greenish-white,
    fruits white.

    subsp. hohenauensis (Ritter) Barthl. & Taylor. 1979. Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil. Differs from subsp. pulvinigera in its
    golden-yellow flower-buds and white fruit.
    subsp. pittieri (Britt. & Rose) Barthl. & Taylor. 1923. (R. pittieri). Venezuela. Differs from subsp. floccosa in its more
    slender stems and smaller flowers and fruits.
    subsp. pulvinigera (Lindb.) Bartl. & Taylor. 1889. (R. pulvinigera, R. gibberula). Brazil. Stems often reddish, flowers
    ca. 18 mm wide or more, fruits deep pink, sometimes whitish.

    subsp. tucumanensis (Web.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1892. (R. tucumanensis). Peru, Bolivia, Argentina. Differs from subsp.
    pulvinigera in its less reddened stems and in its red or white larger fruits to 1 cm thick.

  • R. gaertneri (Regel) Vaupel. 1884. (Schlumbergera gaertneri, Epiphyllopsis gaertneri, Epiphyllopsis gaertneri,
    Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri, Hatiora gaertneri). Brazil. Stems flat, jointed, joints ca. 3-5 cm long and 1.5-2 cm wide.
    Flowers expanding, ca. 5 cm long and 4 cm wide, scarlet. The Thanksgiving Cactus, much-hybridized with R. rosea.
  • R. goebeliana Back. 1956. Bolivia. Stems flat, 2.5-3 cm wide. Flowers pinkish white.
  • R. gonocarpa Web. 1892. Brazil. Stems flat or 3-angled, to 3 cm wide. Flowers with 3-angled base. Fruit purple to
  • R. grandiflora Haw. 1819. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 8-10 mm thick. Flowers 2 cm wide, light rose or cream. Fruit
  • R. herminiae (Campos Porto & Cast.) Kimn. 1941. (Hatiora herminiae). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, joints 2-3 cm long,
    2-3 mm thick. Flowers 2-2.5 cm wide, rosy red.
  • R. heteroclada Britt. & Rose. 1923. (R. virgata). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 1-2 mm thick, terminal branches very
    short. Flowers small, white. Fruits white.
  • R. hoelleri Barthl. & Taylor. 1995. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 3-4 mm thick. Flowers 1 cm wide, bright carmine-red.
    Fruit red.
  • R. houlletiana Lem. 1858. (Lepismium houlletianum). Brazil, Argentina. Stems with long cylindrical bases, flattened
    terminal portion 1-5 cm wide. Flowers with an angled base, hardly opening to widely expanded, greenish cream, often
    with a red center. Fruit red.
    forma houlletiana. Stamens with reddish bases.
    forma regnellii (Lindb.) Kimn. (R. regnellii, Lepismium houlletianum var. regnellii). Stamens cream-colored, without
    reddish bases.
  • R. ianthothele (Monv.) Brand. 1839. (Pfeiffera ianthothele, Lepismium ianthothele, Pfeiffera mataralensis, P. erects,
    P. gracilis, P. multigona). Bolivia, Argentina. Stems cylindrical or angled. Flowers with spiny base, yellowish white.
  • R. incachacana Cárd. 1952. (Acanthorhipsalis incachacana, Lepismium incachacanum). Bolivia. Stems flat, (3-)5-6
    cm wide, margin with tufts of spines to 18 mm long. Flowers 9-10 mm long, base with long hairs, petals red. Fruits
    profuse, red.
  • R. juengeri Barthl. & Taylor. 1995. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, often very long, 1.5-3 mm thick. Flowers near
    stem-ends, ca. 12 mm wide, white; fruits purplish.
  • R. leucorhaphis Schum. 1900. Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina. Stems cylindrical, 5-8 mm thick, with small white scales.
    Flowers white, fruit red.
  • R. lindbergiana Schum. 1890. (R. erythrocarpa, R. densiareolata). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 3-5 mm thick, with small
    hairs and bristles. Flowers pinkish, fruit light red.
  • R. lorentziana Gris. 1879. Bolivia, Argentina. Stems 2-3-angled, ca. 1 cm wide. Flowers with angled base, white.
    Fruit purplish.
  • R. lumbricoides Lem. 1839. Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina. Stems cylindrical, creeping, 6 mm thick. Flowers and
    fruit white.
    forma lumbricoides. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia. Stem-spines soft, bristly, whitish.
    forma aculeata (Web.) Kimn. Argentina. Stem-spines stiff, yellowish.
  • R. megalantha Löfgr. 1899. (Lepismium megalanthum). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, ca. 1 cm thick. Flowers 4 cm wide,
    white. Fruit white or pinkish.
  • R. mesembryanthemoides Haw. 1821. Brazil. Main stems long, side branches numerous, close together, ca. 1 cm
    long, bristly. Flowers 1.5 cm wide, white to pinkish.
  • R. micrantha (Kunth) DC. 1823. Costa Rica to Peru. Stems 2-6-ribbed, 5-8 mm wide. Flowers white.
    forma kirbergii (Barthl.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1989. (R. kirbergii, R. tonduzii). Ecuador, Costa Rica. Stems 4-6-ribbed.
    forma micrantha. (R. wercklei). 1828. Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru. Stems flat, not very fleshy.
    forma rauhiorum (Barthl.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1974. (R. rauhiorum, R. roseana). Colombia, Ecuador. Stems flat, fleshy.
  • R. miyagawae (Barthl. & Rauh) Kimn. 1987. (Pfeiffera miyagawae, Lepismium miyagawae). Bolivia. Stems 4-angled,
    spiny. Flowers ca. 1" wide, tube spiny, petals orange.
  • *R. monacantha Gris. 1879. Bolivia, Argentina. Flowers orange.
    var. espinosa Kimn. 1995. Stems pendent, flat, spineless. Flower-base hardly angled, scales only at apex, spineless.
    *var. monacantha. (Acanthorhipsalis monacantha. Lepismium monacanthum, A. incahuasina, A. samaipatana var.
    incahuasina). Stems 3-angled, rarely flat, spiny. Flower-base strongly angled, with scales and spines. Fruits orange-red.

    var. samaipatana Cárd. 1957. (Acanthorhipsalis samaipatana). Bolivia. Stems flat, spiny. Flower-base spineless,
    scales only near apex. Fruit rosy-pink.

  • R. monteazulensis Ritter. 1979. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 3-6 mm thick. Flowers greenish white. Fruit white.
  • R. neves-armondii Schum. 1890. (Lepismium neves-armondii). Brazil. Stems cylindrical. Flower-base sunken in
    stem, petals white. Fruits red.
    forma neves-armondii. Stems 4-5 mm thick, flowers 2 cm wide.
    forma megalantha (Löfgr.) Barthl. & Taylor. (R. megalantha). Stems ca. 10 mm thick, flowers to ca. 4 cm wide.
  • R. oblonga Löfgr. 1918. Brazil. Stem-joints flat, oblong, 5-15 cm long, 1-2 cm wide. Flowers and fruit white.
  • R. occidentalis Barthl. & Rauh. 1987. Surinam, Ecuador, Peru. Stems flat, 2-3 cm wide, green. Flowers whitish.
  • R. pacheco-leonis Löfgr. 1918. Brazil.
    subsp. pacheco-leonis. Stems thicker, hardly angled.

    subsp. catenulata (Kimn.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1992. (R. paradoxa var. catenulata). Stems thinner, sharply angled.

  • R. pachyptera Pfeiffer. 1837. (R. robusta). Stem-joints two-sided, to 20-30 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, often purplish.
    Flowers yellowish, fruit white.
  • R. paradoxa (SD. ex Pfeiffer) SD. 1837. (Lepismium paradoxum). Brazil. Stems with alternating 3-winged sections.
    Flowers white. Fruit dull red.
    subsp. paradoxa. Stems 1.2-2 cm. thick.

    subsp. septentrionalis Taylor & Barthl. 1995. Stems 7-11 mm thick.

  • R. paranganiensis (Cárd.) Kimn. 1952. (Acanthorhipsalis paranganiensis, Lepismium paranganiense). Bolivia. Stems
    usually 4-ribbed, ca. 12 mm thick, spiny. Flower base angled, spiny, 18-22 mm wide, petals white. Fruit brownish
  • R. pentaptera Dietr. 1836. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 6-15 mm thick, sharply 5-6-ribbed. Flowers in clusters, white,
    fruit white.
  • R. pilocarpa Löfgr. 1903. (Erythrorhipsalis pilocarpa). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, ca. 3-4 mm thick, densely bristly.
    Flowers ca. 2.5 cm wide, yellowish white, the base of flower bristly..
  • R. platycarpa (Zucc.) Pfeiffer. 1836. Brazil. Stem-joints flat, 10-20 cm long, 35 cm wide green or reddened. Flowers
    greenish white.
  • R. pulchra Löfgr. 1915. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, 3-4 mm thick, areoles reddish. Flowers 12-14 mm long, petals
    purplish red.
  • R. puniceo-discus Lindb. 1890. (Lepismium puniceo-discus). Brazil. Stems cylindrical, thin. Flower base sunken in
    stem, petals white. Fruits red or yellow.
  • R. rosea Lagerh. 1912. (Rhipsalidopsis rosea, Hatiora rosea). Brazil. Stems usually flat, jointed, joints ca. 3.5 cm long
    and 10 cm wide. Flowers expanded, ca. 3.5 cm wide, rose-red.
  • R. russellii Britt. & Rose. 1923. Brazil. Stem-joints ca. 15 cm long, 5-6 cm wide. Flowers often 9 to a cluster,
    minute, fruit purple.
  • R. salicornioides (Haw.) Britt. & Rose. 1819. Brazil. Stem joints ca. 2-3 cm long. Flowers yellow.
    var. salicornioides (Hatiora salicornioides). Stem-joints club-shaped.
    var. cylindrica (Britt. & Rose) Kimn. 1923. (Hatiora cylindrica, H. bambusoises, R. cylindrica). Stem-joints evenly
  • R. sulcata Web. 1898. Brazil. Stems 5-ribbed, nearly cylindrical. Flowers white to pinkish.
  • R. teres (Vell.) Steudel. 1825. Brazil. Stems cylindrical, terminal branches short.
    forma teres. Stems 10-12 mm thick. Flowers pale yellow, quicly turning deep yellowish.
    forma capilliformis (Web.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1892. Stems slender, flowers greenish.

    forma heteroclada (Britt. & Rose) Barthl. & Taylor. 1923. (R. heteroclada). Stems stout, flowers yellowish.
    forma prismatica (Lem.) Barthl. & Taylor. 1863. (R. prismatica, R. maricaensis). Ultimate stem-segments swollen or
    angular, bristly.

  • R. triangularis Werd. 1937. Brazil. Stems elliptical, 3-4-ribbed, 3-5 cm wide. Flowers light green. Questionable
  • R. trigona Pfeiffer. 1837. (Lepismium trigonum). Brazil. Stems 3-angled, ca. 1.5 cm thick. Flower base sunken in
    stem, petals white to pinkish. Fruit red.
  • R. warmingiana Schum. 1890. (R. linearis). Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina. Stems flat or sharply 3-4-angled, 10 mm
    wide or less. Flower base strongly angled, petals white, fruit purple to black.

SCHLUMBERGERA Lemaire. 1858.
(Epiphyllanthus, Zygocactus)

Brazilian epiphytes with short jointed stems and long-tubed reddish, often zygomorphic (unsymmetrical) flowers.

  • S. kautsky (Horobin & McMillan) Taylor. 1991. (S. truncata subsp. kautskyi). Flowers smaller than in S. truncata,
    purple, base 4-angled, fruit yellow-green.
  • S. microsphericus (Schum.) Hövel. 1890. (S. obtusangula, Epiphyllanthus obtusangulus, E. candida). Stems thin,
    cylindrical, spiny. Flowers small, hardly zygomorphic, red or rarely white.
  • *S. opuntioides (Löfgr. & Dusen) Hunt. 1905. (Epiphyllanthus opuntioides, E. obovatus). Stems flat, spiny all over.
    Flowers zygomorphic, small, red. S. ×exotica is a hybrid of S. truncatawith S. opuntioides.
  • *S. orssichiana Barthl. & McMillan. 1978. Flowers very large, strongly zygomorphic. S.×reginae is the name used for
    hybrids with S. truncata.
  • *S. russelliana (Hook.) Britt. & Rose. 1839. Flowers winged or angled near base, not zygomorphic.
  • *S. truncata (Haw.) Moran. 1819. Flowers highly zygomorphic, base cylindrical. Hybrids with S. russelliana are
    called S. ×buckleyi (of which S. ×bridgesii is probably a synonym); one of the clones ('Buckleyi') is the common

    "Christmas cactus". The hybrids differ from S. truncatain having a less zygomorphic floral-opening, a straighter angle
    between ovary and tube, and in their angled base (ovary). Many other hybrids or clonal selections have been produced
    in this alliance.

SELENICEREUS (Berg.) Britt. & Rose. 1909.
(Cryptocereus, Deamia, Strophocactus)
A genus of some 10-20 species, widely distributed throughout Latin America from Texas to northern South America. Stems
long and scandent, mostly many-ribbed, rarely flat to 4-ribbed (S. testudo, S. inermis, S. wittii) or flat and lobed (S.
chrysocardium, S. anthonyanus). Flowers small (S. innesii) to very large, nocturnal, funnelform, tube hairy, often spiny, petals
white to yellowish.

  • *S. anthonyanus (Alex.) Kimn. 1950. Mexico. Stems like those of Epiphyllum anguligerbut more vining and with short
    spines. Flowers ca. 12 cm long, 10-15 cm wide, the outer petals purplish, the inner cream.
  • S. atropilosus Kimn. 1978. Mexico. Flowers 12 cm long, tube with black hairs.
    S. boeckmannii (Otto) Britt. & Rose. 1850. (S. vaupelii). Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Mexico. Flowers 24-39
    cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • S. brevispinus Britt. & Rose. 1920. Cuba. Spines less and 1 mm long. Flowers 25 cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • S. chontalensis (Alex.) Kimn. 1950. Mexico. Only found growing on top of boulders, never epiphytic.
  • *S. chrysocardium (Alex.) Kimn. 1956. (Epiphyllum chrysocardium, Marniera chrysocardium). Mexico. Stems
    deeply lobed, ca. 28 cm wide. Flowers 32-38 cm long, 23-30 cm wide, base of tube very spiny.
  • S. coniflorus (Weing.) Britt. & Rose. 1904. Mexico. Flowers 22-25 cm long. See S.grandiflorus.
  • S. donkelaarii (S.-D.) Britt. & Rose. 1845. Mexico. Stems 1 cm thick, low-ribbed, spines short, appressed to stem.
    Flowers 18 cm long, spiny, hairless.
  • *S. grandiflorus (L.) Britt. & Rose. 1753. Jamaica, Cuba. Stems many-ribbed. Flowers 18 cm long, tube densely
    woolly. The following should probably be reduced to varieties or synonyms of S. grandiflorus, as their stems and
    flowers differ only slightly: S. urbanianus, S. coniflorus, S. hondurensis, S. pteranthus, S. kunthianus, S. brevispinus, S.
    boeckmannii, S. macdonaldii, S. rothii.
  • S. hamatus (Scheidw.) Britt. & Rose. 1837. Mexico. Stems 3-4-ribbed, with knobby projections, nearly spineless.
    Flowers 20-25 cm long, tube with black hairs.
  • S. hondurensis (Schum.) Britt. & Rose. 1904. Honduras. Stems hairy. Flowers 20 cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • S. inermis (Otto) Britt. & Rose. 1837. (Epiphyllum steyermarkii). Venezuela, Colombia. Stems 2-5-ribbed, almost
    spineless. Flower 15 cm long, spiny, hairless.
  • S. innesii Kimn. 1982. St. Vincent (West Indies). Flowers 4-4.5 cm long, spiny, hairless.
  • S. kunthianus (Otto) Britt. & Rose. 1850. Honduras? Flowers 24 cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • *S. macdonaldiae (Hook.) Britt. & Rose. 1853. Honduras? Stem ribs tubercled. Flowers 30-34 cm long. See S.
  • S. megalanthus (Schum.) Moran. 1907. (Mediocactus megalanthus). Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. Stem 3-ribbed.
    Flower 30-38 cm long, with large, flattened tubercles near base.
  • S. murrillii Britt. & Rose. 1920. Mexico. Stems only 8 mm thick, nearly spineless. Flowers 15 cm long, spiny,
  • S. nelsonii (Weing.) Britt. & Rose. 1923. Mexico. Flowers 20 cm long, tube hairless, spiny.
  • *S. pteranthus (Link & Otto) Britt, & Rose. 1834. Mexico. Stems 4-5-ribbed. Flowers 25-30 cm long. See S.
  • S. rothii (Weing.) Berger. 1922. Paraguay (probably introduced). Flower 27 cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • S. rubineus Kimn. 1992. Mexico. Stems 4-5-ribbed. Flowers 18 cm. wide, 18-19 cm long, inner and outer petals
    flushed ruby-red near base.
  • S. setaceus (S.-D. ex DC.) Werderm. 1828. (Mediocactus coccineus in the sense of Britt. & Rose, ?M. lindmanii,
    ?M. hassleri, S. rizzinii). Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina. Stem usually 3-ribbed. Flower 19-22 cm. long, with small
    tubercles near base.
  • *S. spinulosus (DC.) Britt. & Rose. 1828. (S. pseudospinulosus). Texas, Mexico. Stems short-spined. Flowers
    8?-14 cm long, tube spiny, hairless.
  • S. testudo (Karw.) Buxb. 1837. (Deamia testudo, D. diabolica). Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Costa Rica,
    Nicaragua. Stems 3(-5)-ribbed, ribs evenly spaced on hanging stems but stem usually flattened on one side when
    rooting along tree-trunk. Flowers 21-26 cm long.
  • S. tricae Hunt. 1989. Belize, Mexico. Stem 3-5-ribbed, short spined. Flowers 18-27 cm long, the base spiny and
    lacking long hairs; inner petals magenta near base.
  • S. urbanianus (Gürke & Weing.) Britt. & Rose. 1904. (S. maxonii). Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic. Stems
    4-5-ribbed, flowers 20-30 cm long. See S. grandiflorus.
  • S. vagans (K. Brand.) Britt. & Rose. 1904. Mexico. Flower 15 cm long, tube spiny, hairless.
  • S. wercklei (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stem with 6-12 low ribs. Flower 15-16 cm long, spiny, hairless.
  • S. wittii (Schum.) Rowley. 1900. (Strophocactus wittii). Colombia, Brazil, Peru. Stems vining, flat, 5-10 cm wide,
    margins spiny; flowers 25 cm long, white.

TRICHOCEREUS (Berger) Riccobono. 1909.
A genus of some 40 species widely distributed in the Andes from Peru to Argentina. The stems are cylindrical and usually
long, thick and spiny, while the large nocturnal flowers are white. All species are terrestrial except for T. arboricola, which is
epiphytic in cloud forests. It is only distantly related to other epiphytic cacti.

  • T. arboricola Kimn. 1990. Bolivia. Stems eventually pendent, 2.5-4 cm thick, 9-11-ribbed, spiny. Flowers 12-13 cm
    long, opening 9-10 cm, petals white.

WEBEROCEREUS Britt. & Rose. 1909.

(Eccremocactus, Werckleocereus)
A genus with very diverse stems--short and pendent or long and vining and flat to many-angled, but with similar, small,
nocturnal, odd-smelling, bat-pollinated flowers. Some species are often included in Werckleocereus (3-angled stems) and
Eccremocactus (flat-stems).

  • W. biolleyi (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stems nearly cylindrical, 4-6 mm thick. Flowers 5-6 cm long,
  • W. bradei (Britt. & Rose) Rowley. 1913. (Eccremocactus bradei). Costa Rica. Stems flat, ca. 12 cm wide, margins
    crenate, with small spines. Flowers 5.5-7 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, white,

    nearly spineless.

  • W. glaber (Eichl.) Rowley. Stems trigonous, 2.5-4.5 cm wide, spiny. Flowers (9-)11-14 cm long, 8-10 cm wide,
    spiny and hairy.
    *var. glaber. 1910. Guatemala. Flowers 9-10 cm long, sparsely hairy.
    var. mirandae (Bravo) Eliasson. 1967. (Werckleocereus glaber var. mirandae, Selenicereus mirandae). Mexico.
    Flowers (10-)12-13 cm long, densely hairy.
  • W. imitans (Kimn. & Hutch.) Buxb. 1956. (Werckleocereus iitans, Eccremocactus imitans, Cryptocereus imitans).
    Costa Rica. Stems flat, lobed as in Epiphyllum anguliger, with small spines. Flowers 6-7 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, base
    moderately spiny.
  • W. panamensis Britt. & Rose. 1920. Panama. Stems 3-angled. Flowers 4-7 cm long, white.
  • W. rosei (Kimn.) Buxb. 1962. (Eccremocactus rosei, Cryptocereus rosei). Ecuador. Stems flat, 4-8 cm wide, margins
    crenate. Flowers 5.5-7 cm long, whitish, the lower half densely spiny.
  • *W. tonduzii (Web.) Rowley. 1902. (Werckleocereus tonduzii). Costa Rica. Stems trigonous, ca. 3 cm wide, spines
    nearly lacking, minute. Flowers 7-8 cm long, 4-5 cm wide, spiny but not hairy.
  • W. trichophorus Johnson & Kimn. 1963. Costa Rica. Stems nearly cylindrical, spiny and densely hairy. Flower 5.5-6
    cm long, pinkish.
  • W. tunilla (Web.) Britt. & Rose. 1902. Costa Rica. Stems 4(-6)-angled. Flowers 6-7 cm long, pinkish.

The above list of epiphytic species was compiled by Myron Kimnach, and reprinted here with his permission.

This page is maintained by Jim Hunter
Last Modified 5/11/97